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Linux Distributions

As discussed here, the version and compile time configuration of a Linux® kernel enable support for zoned block devices and the features supported. This section gives an overview of the support provided by the pre-compiled binary kernels shipped with various Linux distributions.

Fedora Linux#

Fedora® is a Linux distribution developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and primarily sponsored by Red Hat®.

The following table gives an overview of the kernel versions and configuration used with the latest releases of the Fedora distribution. A more complete list of kernel versions for all releases can be found here.

VersionLinux KernelZBD supportdm-zoned supportZNS support
Fedora 26 (EOL)4.11YesNoNo
Fedora 27 (EOL)4.13YesYesNo
Fedora 28 (EOL)4.16YesYesNo
Fedora 29 (EOL)4.18YesYesNo
Fedora 30 (EOL)5.0YesYesNo
Fedora 31 (EOL)5.3YesYesNo
Fedora 32 (EOL)5.6YesYesNo
Fedora 33 (EOL)5.8YesYesYes (after updates)
Fedora 345.11YesYesYes
Fedora 355.14YesYesYes

Support for the zoned block interface is present and enabled by default in the binary kernel of all releases of Fedora since release 26. Starting with release 27, the pre-compiled kernel packages also include the dm-zoned device mapper target compiled as a loadable kernel module. Fedora 33 also provides NVMe Zoned Namespace (ZNS) support after updating the distribution. Detailed information on how to download and install Fedora can be found here.

Debian#

Debian is one of the earliest Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel. Debian can be shipped with different operating system kernels, such as Linux, kFreeBSD or GNU Hurd. The table below summarizes Debian Linux zoned storage readiness for the most recent distribution releases.

VersionLinux KernelZBD supportdm-zoned supportZNS support
9 (Stretch)4.9NoNoNo
10 (Buster)4.19YesYesNo
11 (Bullseye)5.10YesYesYes

Ubuntu#

Ubuntu is a popular free and open-source Linux distribution originally based on Debian. Ubuntu is released every six months with long-term support (LTS) releases every two years.

A complete list of the kernel versions shipped with Ubuntu releases can be found here. The table below summarizes zoned block device support readiness for the most recent releases.

VersionLinux KernelZBD supportdm-zoned supportZNS support
12.04 LTS (Precise Pangolin)3.2NoNoNo
14.04 LTS (Trusty Tahr)3.13NoNoNo
16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus)4.4NoNoNo
17.04 (Zesty Zapus)4.10YesNoNo
17.10 (Artful Aardvark)4.13YesYesNo
18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver)4.15YesYesNo
18.10 (Cosmic Cuttlefish)4.18YesYesNo
19.04 (Disco Dingo)5.0YesYesNo
19.10 (Eoan Ermine)5.3YesYesNo
20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa)5.4YesYesNo
20.10 (Groovy Gorilla)5.8YesYesNo
21.04 (Hirsute Hippo)5.11YesYesYes

Red Hat Enterprise Linux#

Red Hat Enterprise Linux®, often abbreviated RHEL, is a Linux distribution developed by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial server market. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is released in server versions for several micro architectures.

The list of kernel versions shipped with all RHEL releases can be found here.

RHEL 8#

The latest release 8 of RHEL is based on the kernel version 4.18 which includes zoned block device support. However, as shown in the table below, this support is not enabled at compile time for the binary kernel shipped with the distribution.

VersionLinux KernelZBD supportdm-zoned supportZNS support
RHEL 84.18.0-80NoNoNo
RHEL 8.14.18.0-147NoNoNo
RHEL 8.24.18.0-193NoNoNo
RHEL 8.34.18.0-240NoNoNo

Users who require zoned block device support can recompile the RHEL kernel after enabling zoned block device support. Using such recompiled kernel may however conflict with Red Hat support. Users should contact Red Hat support for more information.

RHEL 7 and 6#

As indicated in the table below, all releases of RHEL 7 are based on the kernel version 3.10 which lacks zoned block device support.

VersionLinux KernelZBD supportdm-zoned supportZNS support
RHEL 7.03.10.0-123NoNoNo
RHEL 7.13.10.0-229NoNoNo
RHEL 7.23.10.0-327NoNoNo
RHEL 7.33.10.0-514NoNoNo
RHEL 7.43.10.0-693NoNoNo
RHEL 7.53.10.0-862NoNoNo
RHEL 7.63.10.0-957NoNoNo
RHEL 7.73.10.0-1062NoNoNo
RHEL 7.83.10.0-1127NoNoNo
RHEL 7.93.10.0-1160NoNoNo

RHEL 6 being based on the older kernel 2.6.32, zoned block devices are not supported.

VersionLinux KernelZBD supportdm-zoned supportZNS support
RHEL 6.02.6.32-71NoNoNo
RHEL 6.12.6.32-131NoNoNo
RHEL 6.22.6.32-220NoNoNo
RHEL 6.32.6.32-279NoNoNo
RHEL 6.42.6.32-358NoNoNo
RHEL 6.52.6.32-431NoNoNo
RHEL 6.62.6.32-504NoNoNo
RHEL 6.72.6.32-573NoNoNo
RHEL 6.82.6.32-642NoNoNo
RHEL 6.92.6.32-696NoNoNo
RHEL 6.102.6.32-754NoNoNo
RHEL 6 ELS+2.6.32-754NoNoNo

CentOS#

CentOS is a community maintained Linux distribution derived from the sources of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). CentOS release versions follow closely RHEL releases, reusing the same version and release numbers. More information on the distribution releases and kernel versions can be found here.

Due to this design approach, CentOS zoned block device support is identical to that of Red Hat Enterprise Linux: zoned block device support is not available by default with the pre-compiled kernels shipped with the distribution.

However, third party repositories such as The Community Enterprise Linux Repository provide recent kernels packages precompiled with zoned block device suport enabled. elrepo provides kernels version 5.12 and 5.13 for CentOS 7, CentOS 8 and CentOS 8 STream.

VersionLinux KernelZBD supportdm-zoned supportZNS support
CentOS 7 + elrepo5.12, 5.13YesYesYes
CentOS 8 + elrepo5.12, 5.13YesYesYes
CentOS 8 Stream + elrepo5.12, 5.13YesYesYes

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server#

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) is a Linux-based operating system developed by SUSE®. SLES is designed primarily for servers, mainframes and workstations. Major versions of SLES are released at an interval of 3 to 4 years while minor versions called "Service Packs" are released about every 12 months.

A complete list of the kernel versions used with SLES versions can be found here. The following table only lists the most recent versions under long term service support.

VersionLinux KernelZBD supportdm-zoned supportZNS support
11.33.0.76NoNoNo
11.43.0.101NoNoNo
12.03.12NoNoNo
12.13.12NoNoNo
12.24.4NoNoNo
12.34.4NoNoNo
12.44.12YesYesNo
154.12YesYesNo
15.14.12.14YesYesNo
15.25.3.18YesYesNo
15.35.3.18YesYesYes

openSUSE#

openSUSE, formerly called SUSE Linux and SuSE Linux Professional, is a widely used Linux distribution sponsored by SUSE Linux GmbH and other companies. openSUSE focus is creating usable open-source tools for software developers and system administrators while providing a user-friendly desktop and feature-rich server environment.

openSUSE is available in a stable base with the openSUSE Leap version. The openSUSE Tumbleweed is a rolling release which offers more up-to-date free software.

The list of kernel versions shipped with openSUSE releases can be found here. Zoned block device support with the shipped kernel for the latest releases is shown in the table below.

VersionLinux KernelZBD supportdm-zoned supportZNS support
Leap 15.04.12YesNoNo
Leap 15.14.12YesNoNo
Leap 15.25.3YesYesNo
Leap 15.35.3YesYesYes
Tumbleweedlatest stable (5.9+)YesYesYes