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Linux Distributions

As discussed here, the version and compile time configuration of a Linux® kernel enable support for zoned block devices and the features supported. This section gives an overview of the support provided by the pre-compiled binary kernels shipped with various Linux distributions.

Fedora Linux

Fedora® is a Linux distribution developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and primarily sponsored by Red Hat®.

The following table gives an overview of the kernel versions and configuration used with the latest releases of the Fedora distribution. A more complete list of kernel versions for all releases can be found here.

VersionKernelZBD APIZBC, ZACZNSdm-zonedzonefsbtrfs
Fedora 26 (EOL)4.11YesYesNoNoNoNo
Fedora 27 (EOL)4.13YesYesNoYesNoNo
Fedora 28 (EOL)4.16YesYesNoYesNoNo
Fedora 29 (EOL)4.18YesYesNoYesNoNo
Fedora 30 (EOL)5.0YesYesNoYesNoNo
Fedora 31 (EOL)5.3YesYesNoYesNoNo
Fedora 32 (EOL)5.6YesYesNoYesNoNo
Fedora 33 (EOL)5.8YesYesYes
(after updates)
YesNoNo
Fedora 34 (EOL)5.11YesYesYesYesYesNo
Fedora 355.14YesYesYesYesYesYes
Fedora 365.17YesYesYesYesYesYes

Support for the zoned block interface is present and enabled by default in the binary kernel of all releases of Fedora since release 26. Starting with release 27, the pre-compiled kernel packages also include the dm-zoned device mapper target compiled as a loadable kernel module. Fedora 33 also provides NVMe Zoned Namespace (ZNS) support after updating the distribution. Detailed information on how to download and install Fedora can be found here.

Debian

Debian is one of the earliest Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel. Debian can be shipped with different operating system kernels, such as Linux, kFreeBSD or GNU Hurd. The table below summarizes Debian Linux zoned storage readiness for the most recent distribution releases.

VersionKernelZBD APIZBC, ZACZNSdm-zoned
9
Stretch
4.9NoNoNoNo
10
Buster
4.19YesYesNoYes
11
Bullseye
5.10YesYesYesYes

Ubuntu

Ubuntu is a popular free and open-source Linux distribution originally based on Debian. Ubuntu is released every six months with long-term support (LTS) releases every two years.

A complete list of the kernel versions shipped with Ubuntu releases can be found here. The table below summarizes zoned block device support readiness for the most recent releases.

VersionKernelZBD APIZBC, ZACZNSdm-zoned
12.04 LTS
Precise Pangolin
3.2NoNoNoNo
14.04 LTS
Trusty Tahr
3.13NoNoNoNo
16.04 LTS
Xenial Xerus
4.4NoNoNoNo
17.04
Zesty Zapus
4.10YesNoNoNo
17.10
Artful Aardvark
4.13YesYesNoNo
18.04 LTS
Bionic Beaver
4.15YesYesNoNo
18.10
Cosmic Cuttlefish
4.18YesYesNoNo
19.04
Disco Dingo
5.0YesYesNoNo
19.10
Eoan Ermine
5.3YesYesNoNo
20.04 LTS
Focal Fossa
5.4YesYesNoNo
20.10
Groovy Gorilla
5.8YesYesNoNo
21.04
Hirsute Hippo
5.11YesYesYesNo
21.10
Impish Indri
5.13YesYesYesNo
22.04 LTS
Jammy Jellyfish
5.17YesYesYesNo

Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Red Hat Enterprise Linux®, often abbreviated RHEL, is a Linux distribution developed by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial server market. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is released in server versions for several micro architectures.

The list of kernel versions shipped with all RHEL releases can be found here.

RHEL 9

The latest release 9 of RHEL is based on the kernel version 5.14. The default binary kernel shipped with the distribution is configured with zoned block device support enabled, which enable using SMR and ZNS devices. However, advanced features suh as the dm-zoned device mapper and file systems with zoned block device support are not available.

VersionKernelZBD APIZBC, ZACZNSdm-zoned
RHEL 95.14.0-70YesYesYesNo

Users who require a more complete support for zoned block devices can reconfigure and recompile the RHEL kernel. Using such recompiled kernel may however conflict with Red Hat support. Users should contact Red Hat support for more information.

RHEL 8

RHEL 8 is based on the kernel version 4.18 which includes zoned block device support. However, as shown in the table below, this support is not enabled at compile time for the default binary kernel shipped with the distribution.

VersionKernelZBD APIZBC, ZACZNSdm-zoned
RHEL 84.18.0-80NoNoNoNo
RHEL 8.14.18.0-147NoNoNoNo
RHEL 8.24.18.0-193NoNoNoNo
RHEL 8.34.18.0-240NoNoNoNo

Users who require zoned block device support can recompile the RHEL kernel after enabling zoned block device support. Using such recompiled kernel may however conflict with Red Hat support. Users should contact Red Hat support for more information.

RHEL 7 and 6

As indicated in the table below, all releases of RHEL 7 are based on the kernel version 3.10 which lacks zoned block device support.

VersionKernelZBD APIZBC, ZACZNSdm-zoned
RHEL 7.03.10.0-123NoNoNoNo
RHEL 7.13.10.0-229NoNoNoNo
RHEL 7.23.10.0-327NoNoNoNo
RHEL 7.33.10.0-514NoNoNoNo
RHEL 7.43.10.0-693NoNoNoNo
RHEL 7.53.10.0-862NoNoNoNo
RHEL 7.63.10.0-957NoNoNoNo
RHEL 7.73.10.0-1062NoNoNoNo
RHEL 7.83.10.0-1127NoNoNoNo
RHEL 7.93.10.0-1160NoNoNoNo

RHEL 6 being based on the older kernel 2.6.32, zoned block devices are not supported.

VersionKernelZBD APIZBC, ZACZNSdm-zoned
RHEL 6.02.6.32-71NoNoNoNo
RHEL 6.12.6.32-131NoNoNoNo
RHEL 6.22.6.32-220NoNoNoNo
RHEL 6.32.6.32-279NoNoNoNo
RHEL 6.42.6.32-358NoNoNoNo
RHEL 6.52.6.32-431NoNoNoNo
RHEL 6.62.6.32-504NoNoNoNo
RHEL 6.72.6.32-573NoNoNoNo
RHEL 6.82.6.32-642NoNoNoNo
RHEL 6.92.6.32-696NoNoNoNo
RHEL 6.102.6.32-754NoNoNoNo
RHEL 6 ELS+2.6.32-754NoNoNoNo

CentOS

CentOS is a community maintained Linux distribution derived from the sources of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). CentOS release versions follow closely RHEL releases, reusing the same version and release numbers. More information on the distribution releases and kernel versions can be found here.

Due to this design approach, CentOS zoned block device support is identical to that of Red Hat Enterprise Linux: zoned block device support is not available by default with the pre-compiled kernels shipped with the distribution.

However, third party repositories such as The Community Enterprise Linux Repository provide recent kernels packages precompiled with zoned block device suport enabled. elrepo provides kernels version 5.12 and 5.13 for CentOS 7, CentOS 8 and CentOS 8 STream.

VersionKernelZBD APIZBC, ZACZNSdm-zoned
CentOS 73.10NoNoNoNo
CentOS 7 + elrepo5.18YesYesYesYes
CentOS 84.18NoNoNoNo
CentOS 8 + elrepo5.18YesYesYesYes
CentOS Stream 85.13NoNoNoNo
CentOS Stream 8 + elrepo5.18YesYesYesYes
CentOS Stream 95.14YesYesYesNo

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) is a Linux-based operating system developed by SUSE®. SLES is designed primarily for servers, mainframes and workstations. Major versions of SLES are released at an interval of 3 to 4 years while minor versions called "Service Packs" are released about every 12 months.

A complete list of the kernel versions used with SLES versions can be found here. The following table only lists the most recent versions under long term service support.

VersionKernelZBD APIZBC, ZACZNSdm-zoned
11.33.0.76NoNoNoNo
11.43.0.101NoNoNoNo
12.03.12NoNoNoNo
12.13.12NoNoNoNo
12.24.4NoNoNoNo
12.34.4NoNoNoNo
12.44.12YesYesNoNo
154.12YesYesNoNo
15.14.12.14YesYesNoYes
15.25.3.18YesYesNoYes
15.35.3.18YesYesNoYes

openSUSE

openSUSE, formerly called SUSE Linux and SuSE Linux Professional, is a widely used Linux distribution sponsored by SUSE Linux GmbH and other companies. openSUSE focus is creating usable open-source tools for software developers and system administrators while providing a user-friendly desktop and feature-rich server environment.

openSUSE is available in a stable base with the openSUSE Leap version. The openSUSE Tumbleweed is a rolling release which offers more up-to-date free software.

The list of kernel versions shipped with openSUSE releases can be found here. Zoned block device support with the shipped kernel for the latest releases is shown in the table below.

VersionKernelZBD APIZBC, ZACZNSdm-zoned
Leap 15.04.12YesNoNoNo
Leap 15.14.12YesNoNoNo
Leap 15.25.3YesYesNoYes
Leap 15.35.3YesYesNoYes
TumbleweedLatest Stable
(5.9+)
YesYesYesYes